Electronic sources in APA format

There are a number of special issues related to electronic sources in APA format. Online documents, journal articles, databases, and forums have unique reference requirements. It is important to remember the correct Web address on every online source you use. Always follow the electronic resources you refer to as you research a topic and collect references.

The following examples can help you prepare your electronic references in the appropriate APA format.

Online Documents:
The basic structure of links to online documents is very similar to other links, but with the addition of a primary source, EssayAssistant tells you so. Provide the exact URL where the document can be found.

Author, AA (2000). Job title. Taken from the source
For example:

Cherry, K. (2006). APA format guide. About psychology. Retrieved from http:psychology.about.com/od/apastyle/guide

Journal Member Online Journal:
Articles in an online journal should be cited like print articles, but should include additional information about the original location. The basic structure is as follows:

Author, AB, author, CD, and author, EF (2000). Article title. Period name, volume number, page numbers. Taken from the source

For example:

Jenet, BL (2006) A meta-analysis of online social behavior. Journal of Internet Psychology, 4. Retrieved from http: www. journalofinternetpsychology.com/archives/volume4/ 3924.html

Article taken from the database:
Articles obtained from the online database are formatted as a print reference. According to the sixth edition of the APA Style Guide, it is not necessary to include database information because these databases change over time.

For example:

Henriques, JB, & Davidson, RJ (1991) Left frontal hypoactivation in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 535-545.

Online newspaper article:
When quoting an article on the Internet, you should provide the URL of the newspaper's homepage. The APA suggests doing this to avoid the problem of inappropriate URLs.

For example:

Parker-Pope, T. (2011, 16 November). Patient practices. The New York Times. Retrieved from http:www.nytimes.com

Electronic version of the book to print:
The APA Style Guide suggests that you should include only electronic book references if the book is only available online or is very difficult to find in print. Your recommendation will be very similar to a regular reference for a printed catalog, except that the electronic retrieval information takes the place of the publisher and the name.

For example:

Freud, S. (1922). Totem and Taboo: Some transitions in the wildlife of the wild and the neurotic [Kindle version]. Retrieved from http:www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/37065.kindle.images

Online Forums, Discussion List or Newsgroups:
Messages posted by users on forums, discussions and newsgroups should follow the basic structure for quoting an online document. When possible, use the real name of the poster, starting with the last name, and then starting first. If this is not possible, provide the name of the author online.

The exact date when the message was published should also be stated.

For example:

Leptkin, JL (2006, Nov. 16). Study tips for psychology students [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http:groups.psychelp.com/forums/messages/48382.html//

A few more tips for using electronic sources:
E-mails should not be included in the references section, although they should be listed in the text, buy scholarship essay also provides information on the proper spelling of some email terms, including the following:

A word from

Downloading the hang APA format can sometimes be a struggle, but it’s worth the investment.

Electronic sources require special attention as the format of your references may vary depending on where you found the information. Use this guide as a start, but always be sure to check your work according to the guidelines issued in the official APA style manual.

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