MEASURES DEVELOPED IN JAPAN AFTER THE 1964 NIIGATA EARTHQUAKE TO COUNTER THE LIQUEFACTION OF SOIL In Japan, many remediation methods against liquefaction have been developed since the 1964 Niigata Earthquake, which caused severe damage to structures due to liquefaction. The methods are classified into two categories: ground treatments to prevent liquefaction, and measure that strengthen structures to prevent or minimize damage if the ground liquefies. The remediation methods have been applied to many kinds of structures, such as oil tanks, quay walls, bridges and buildings. The effectiveness of ground treatments to prevent liquefaction has been proved during past earthquakes. However, a new problem was raised during the 1995 Hyogoken-nambu (Kobe) Earthquake because recorded accelerations were far greater than the design acceleration. Then, studies on the adoption of performance-based design started. The 2011 Great East Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake demonstrated the need for a new concept of measures to prevent liquefaction in areas encompassing houses, roads and lifelines. One of these measures is lowering the ground water table. The applicability of this measure has been confirmed by in-situ tests and analyses, and lowering work started in several cities in 2013.